# row_conv¶

paddle.fluid.layers.row_conv(input, future_context_size, param_attr=None, act=None)[source]

Row-convolution operator

The row convolution is called lookahead convolution. This operator was introduced in the following paper for DeepSpeech2: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dyogatam/papers/wang+etal.iclrworkshop2016.pdf

The main motivation is that a bidirectional RNN, useful in DeepSpeech like speech models, learns representation for a sequence by performing a forward and a backward pass through the entire sequence. However, unlike unidirectional RNNs, bidirectional RNNs are challenging to deploy in an online and low-latency setting. The lookahead convolution incorporates information from future subsequences in a computationally efficient manner to improve unidirectional recurrent neural networks. The row convolution operator is different from the 1D sequence convolution, and is computed as follows:

Given an input sequence $$X$$ of length $$t$$ and input dimension $$D$$, and a filter ($$W$$) of size $$context \times D$$, the output sequence is convolved as:

$$out_{i} = \sum_{j=i}^{i + context - 1} X_{j} \cdot W_{j-i}$$

In the above equation:

• $$Out_{i}$$: The i-th row of output variable with shape [1, D].

• $$context$$: Future context size.

• $$X_{j}$$: The j-th row of input variable with shape [1, D].

• $$W_{j-i}$$: The (j-i)-th row of parameters with shape [1, D].

Parameters
• input (Variable) – the input(X) is a LodTensor or tensor, LodTensor(X) supports variable time-length input sequences. The underlying tensor in this LoDTensor is a matrix with shape (T x N), where T is the total time steps in this mini-batch and N is the input data dimension. the shape of Tensor input(X) has shape (B x T x N), B is batch size;.

• future_context_size (int) – Future context size. Please note, the shape of convolution kernel is [future_context_size + 1, D].

• param_attr (ParamAttr) – Attributes of parameters, including name, initializer etc.

• act (str) – Non-linear activation to be applied to output variable.

Returns

the output(Out) is a LodTensor or Tensor, which has same type and same shape as X.

Examples

>>>  # for LodTensor inputs