class paddle.fluid.optimizer.DpsgdOptimizer(learning_rate=0.001, clip=0.9, batch_size=0.999, sigma=1e-08)[source]

We implement the Dpsgd optimizer according to CCS16 paper - Deep Learning with Differential Privacy.


import paddle.fluid as fluid
import numpy

# First create the Executor.
place = fluid.CPUPlace() # fluid.CUDAPlace(0)
exe = fluid.Executor(place)

train_program = fluid.Program()
startup_program = fluid.Program()
with fluid.program_guard(train_program, startup_program):
    data = fluid.layers.data(name='X', shape=[1], dtype='float32')
    hidden = fluid.layers.fc(input=data, size=10)
    loss = fluid.layers.mean(hidden)
    optimizer = fluid.optimizer.Dpsgd(learning_rate=0.01, clip=10.0, batch_size=16.0, sigma=1.0)

# Run the startup program once and only once.

x = numpy.random.random(size=(10, 1)).astype('float32')
outs = exe.run(program=train_program,
              feed={'X': x},
  • learning_rate (float|Variable) – the learning rate used to update parameters. Can be a float value or a Variable with one float value as data element.

  • clip (float) – clipping threshold

  • batch_size (float) – batch size.

  • sigma (float) – for gaussian noise.


Currently, DpsgdOptimizer doesn’t support sparse parameter optimization.

minimize(loss, startup_program=None, parameter_list=None, no_grad_set=None, grad_clip=None)

Add operations to minimize loss by updating parameter_list.

  • loss (Variable) – A Variable containing the value to minimize.

  • startup_program (Program, optional) – Program for initializing parameters in parameter_list. The default value is None, at this time default_startup_program will be used.

  • parameter_list (list, optional) – List of Variable names to update to minimize loss. The default value is None, at this time all parameters will be updated.

  • no_grad_set (set, optional) – Set of Variable objects that don’t need to be updated. The default value is None.

  • grad_clip (GradClipBase, optional) – Gradient clipping strategy, static graph mode does not need to use this argument. Currently, this argument only supports gradient clipping in dygraph mode. In the future, this argument my be adjusted. The default value is None.


tuple (optimize_ops, params_grads), A list of operators appended by minimize and a list of (param, grad) variable pairs, param is Parameter, grad is the gradient value corresponding to the parameter.

Return type



Please refer to the example of current Optimizer.


Load optimizer state dict. For Adam opimizer, contains beta1, beta2, momentum etc. If LearningRateDecay have been used, global_step will be changed.


state_dict (dict) – Dict contains all the Variable needed by optimizer




with fluid.dygraph.guard():
    emb = fluid.dygraph.Embedding( "emb", [10, 10])

    state_dict = emb.state_dict()
    fluid.save_dygraph( state_dict, "paddle_dy")

    adam = fluid.optimizer.Adam( learning_rate = fluid.layers.noam_decay( 100, 10000) )
    state_dict = adam.state_dict()
    fluid.save_dygraph( state_dict, "padle_dy")

    para_state_dict, opti_state_dict = fluid.load_dygraph( "paddle_dy")

    adam.set_dict( opti_state_dict )

Get state dict information from optimizer. It contain all the variable used by optimizer. For Adam opimizer, contains beta1, beta2, momentum etc. If LearningRateDecay have been used, global_step will be include in state dict. If the optimzier never be called(minimize function), the state_dict is empty.

Args: None :returns: dict contains all the variablel used by optimizer :rtype: state_dict(dict)


import paddle.fluid as fluid
adam = fluid.optimizer.Adam(0.001)
state_dict = adam.state_dict()