Pooling is to downsample the input features and reduce overfitting. Reducing overfitting is the result of reducing the output size, which also reduces the number of parameters in subsequent layers.
Pooling usually only takes the feature maps of the previous layer as input, and some parameters are needed to determine the specific operation of the pooling. In PaddlePaddle, we also choose the specific pooling by setting parameters like the size, method, step, whether to pool globally, whether to use cudnn, whether to use ceil function to calculate output. PaddlePaddle has two-dimensional (pool2d), three-dimensional convolution (pool3d), RoI pooling (roi_pool) for fixed-length image features, and sequence pooling (sequence_pool) for sequences, as well as the reverse(backward) process of pooling calculations. The following text describes the 2D/3D pooling, and the RoI pooling, and then the sequence pooling.
input: The pooling operation receives any
Tensorthat conforms to the layout:
N(batch size)* C(channel size) * H(height) * W(width)format as input.
pool_size: It is used to determine the size of the pooling
filter, which determines the size of data to be pooled into a single value.
num_channels: It is used to determine the number of
channelof input. If it is not set or is set to
None, its actual value will be automatically set to the
channelquantity of input.
pool_type: It receives one of
maxas the pooling method. The default value is
maxmeans maximum pooling, i.e. calculating the maximum value of the data in the pooled
filterarea as output; and
avgmeans averaging pooling, i.e. calculating the average of the data in the pooled
filterarea as output.
pool_stride: It is the stride size in which the pooling
filtermoves on the input feature map.
pool_padding: It is used to determine the size of
paddingin the pooling,
paddingis used to pool the features of the edges of feature maps. The
pool_paddingsize determines how much zero is padded to the edge of the feature maps. Thereby it determines the extent to which the edge features are pooled.
global_pooling: It Means whether to use global pooling. Global pooling refers to pooling using
filterof the same size as the feature map. This process can also use average pooling or the maximum pooling as the pooling method. Global pooling is usually used to replace the fully connected layer to greatly reduce the parameters to prevent overfitting.
use_cudnn: This option allows you to choose whether or not to use cudnn to accelerate pooling.
ceil_mode: Whether to use the ceil function to calculate the output height and width.
ceil modemeans ceiling mode, which means that, in the feature map, the edge parts that are smaller than
filter sizewill be retained, and separately calculated. It can be understood as supplementing the original data with edge with a value of -NAN. By contrast, The floor mode directly discards the edges smaller than the
filter size. The specific calculation formula is as follows:
Output size = (input size - filter size + 2 * padding) / stride (stride size) + 1
Output size = (input size - filter size + 2 * padding + stride - 1) / stride + 1
roi_pool is generally used in detection networks, and the input feature map is pooled to a specific size by the bounding box.
rois: It receives
LoDTensortype to indicate the Regions of Interest that needs to be pooled. For an explanation of RoI, please refer to Paper
pooled_width: accept non-square pooling box sizes
spatial_scale: Used to set the scale of scaling the RoI and the original image. Note that the settings here require the user to manually calculate the actual scaling of the RoI and the original image.
sequence_pool is an interface used to pool variable-length sequences. It pools the features of all time steps of each instance, and also supports one of
max to be used as the pooling method. Specifically:
averagesums up the data in each time step and takes its average as the pooling result.
sumtake the sum of the data in each time step as pooling result.
sqrtsums the data in each time step and takes its square root as the pooling result.
maxtakes the maximum value for each time step as the pooling result.